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Roaring 20s

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Mateo Gray
Mateo Gray

Mature Spread Wide

Norway spruce trees support a wide variety of wildlife. They are important as winter cover for deer and small game including grouse, hare and woodcock. Song birds and fur bearers also frequent these forest types. Norway spruce also makes a good roosting tree for hawks and owls.

mature spread wide


While the definition of a successful hunt is left to its participants, the Boone and Crockett Club scoring system remains the benchmark for identifying mature big-game animals and healthy big-game populations.

Choosing a shade tree for the home landscape requires planning and forethought. A tree should fit your needs now and in the future when the tree matures. Size is important, since a very large mature tree may shade the whole yard and dwarf a house on a small lot. There are many smaller trees available that would suit the location better. A tree of mature height and spread should never interfere with overhead power lines. The tree should also be adapted to the soil type in the area where it is planted.

Technical Abstract: Rates of spread of insect-transmitted plant pathogens are a function of vector abundance. Despite this, factors affecting population growth rates of insects that transmit plant pathogens have received limited attention. The glassy-winged sharpshooter (Homalodisca vitripennis) feeds on xylem-sap and has a broad host range. As a result, the glassy-winged sharpshooter is capable of transmitting the xylem-limited bacterial pathogen Xylella fastidiosa, which causes disease in a wide range of perennial crops. Studies to identify factors affecting egg production by the glassy-winged sharpshooter have been conducted over the past decade. Results indicate that females emerge without mature eggs and must feed to produce mature eggs. During oviposition events, females deposit the majority of their egg load, thereby requiring another feeding bout to produce additional mature eggs. Low levels of feeding (12 ml of excreta), females diverted resources to egg production. As a result, there was an exponential relationship between feeding (as measured by excreta production) and egg load. Rates of egg maturation varied with host plant species, suggesting that host plant species vary in quality for providing nutrients to produce mature eggs. Xylem-sap chemical profiles of plants used in egg maturation assays vary, although it is unclear if differences in egg maturation rates were due to feeding stimulants, feeding deterrents, or quantity of limiting compounds.

Finally, the progressive restructuring of wholesale electricity markets, while traditionally viewed as providing principal support to conventional merchant generation, has also facilitated the spread of green energy. It has enabled multiple points of interconnection, and broad integration of both the green electricity markets and the markets for their environmental attributes.

The charts below present 10-year forecast merchant development returns to natural gas, wind, and solar PV in three key US markets: the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT); the PJM Interconnection (PJM), and the California Independent System Operator (CAISO). As a whole, low load growth and generation oversupply ensures that none of these asset classes is forecast to achieve a full return (estimated at 9.7%). What is noteworthy, however, is the relative consistency of returns to all classes and the narrowing of spreads between renewable asset classes and new natural gas plants.

Thanks to burgeoning unconventional oil production, especially that coming out of West Texas, the supply of natural gas that comes along for the ride has expanded faster than generators (or anyone else) can use it. But Texas is also blessed with high levels of wind, be it from the wide flat plains of the West or from the steady coastal breezes. Texas is also at a favorable latitude for solar resource. Furthermore, the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) market only pays for peak generating capacity on an hour-to-hour basis, a situation independent merchant power developers have long decried. With last year's improvement in prices, Market Intelligence estimates spark spreads sufficient to deliver returns to generation equity owners this summer, with growth into the future as the market stays tight on generation.

Wind clean spreads look better still. With modern wind turbines operating close to 45% of the year, the long-cited deficiency in summer peak contribution becomes less relevant. Wind captures more value in winter months than solar PV does, driving a higher overall estimated return.

Azaleas ( Rhododendron ) have been a successful crop for the domestic ry industry for morethan a century. Hundreds of azalea species and cultivars have been collected from Europe and Asia, bred andcrossbred by everyone from nursery industry professionals to college professors, from medical doctors toamateur gardeners. Thousands of azalea varieties, selections and cultivars now exist due to the effortsof breeders searching for improvements such as lustrous, evergreen foliage; longer bloom retention;wider range of colors; shorter stature of growth; and blossoms with an unusual or enhanced size and shape.There are cultivars that bloom during several seasons in the same year. There are azaleas with uniquecolors, such as green, summer blooms, and increased number of chromosomes or tetraploidy. A nurserytoday might sell only 10 percent of the named cultivars that were available 20 to 30 years ago.Contemporary azalea cultivars have their merits, but it is this author's intent to make the readeraware of some outstanding cultivars of the past that have been overlooked.

Worthy Cultivars There are some Glenn Dale azalea cultivars not common in the trade today that deserve recognition.Many people may be familiar with some of them, but most likely not all of them. Most are unaware oftheir long-term performance in the garden and their mature habit. While the Glenn Dale azaleas growbest in zones 6 to 8, they can survive with protection from strong winds in Zone 5. The following area few cultivars that warrant a closer look.

R. 'Jubilant' (Fig. 3) takes on a beautiful, arching habit as it matures. It has brilliant,single, red, 2-inch flowers, which appear in the first week of May (early midseason). Afterapproximately 20 years, 'Jubilant' grows up to 8 feet, becoming more and more attractive as itsbranches become increasingly arched. Morrison described the shrub to be robust, dense and erect.

R. 'Fawn' (Fig. 4) is another striking Glenn Dale azalea that is not well-known in the trade. Ithas 2-inch, white flowers that have distinct, purplish pink, wavy margins, opening so wide they arealmost flat. When fully open, the flowers are hypnotic. Its color is similar to the popular GlennDale, 'Martha Hitchcock', but the shrub only grows up to 4 feet in 20 years. 'Fawn' retains adenser and more compact form than 'Martha Hitchcock'. It blooms early midseason, typically aroundthe first week of May.

R. 'Ambrosia' (Fig. 5) is a rather unusually colored Glenn Dale azalea. Azalea collectors oftenrefer to the color as yellowish pink. Morrison noted its color had the landscape effect of paleapricot. Very few early-blooming azaleas exhibit this color except for some of the Kurume azaleas.'Ambrosia' is unique because its large, single flowers are greater than 2 inches in diameter,and its mature height is taller than the Kurume azaleas. Its early-season flowers bloom near theend of April. Reaching up to 5 feet in 10 years, it has an upright, fairly loose, open habit atmaturity.

Another Glenn Dale known by collectors for having two-toned flowers is R. 'Dauntless' (Fig. 7).Its single flowers are deep purplish red with the base of each flower tube a bright scarlet,similar to the tiny-flowered R. 'Amoenum'. Blooming midseason, it matures into an attractive,broad-spreading form. The new foliage is nearly chartreuse in the spring, but it fades to amedium green the rest of the summer. In perfect contrast with its lime green foliage, itsunique color is so beautiful that it seems to glow or vibrate. It appears as a darker purple thanalmost any other azalea in bloom at that time.

Morrison's breeding program used a wide variety of parent material, including large-floweredevergreen forms that were not hardy in the Mid-Atlantic region. Among these were R. kaempferi (Kaempfer's torch azalea), R. yedoense var. poukhanense (Korean azalea), R. indicum (sweet indica azalea, a parent plant of more than 100 Glenn Dale hybrids), R. mucronatum (possibly of cultivated origin), Kurume hybrids, clones of the SouthernIndian azaleas, R. simsii (Sims azalea) and the mysterious 'Vittatum' (parent of morethan 100 Glenn Dale hybrids).

In addition to the sheer numbers of cultivars produced, the Glenn Dales also reflect Morrison'sinterest in flower character and quality. They have clean, pure colors; definite contrasts inpatterned flowers; reflective character; flower stalks (pedicels) strong enough to bear theweight of the flowers; and the ability of the flower to fall off rather than die and persiston the plant. Morrison took the opportunity to incorporate a wide range of germplasm in thebreeding program, using not only azaleas from important US private and commercial sources, butalso from plants or seed collected by plant explorers in Asia, especially China, in the 1920sand later.

Use Glenn Dale azaleas in a naturalized, formal or informal garden setting, along woodlandedges (e.g., Fig. 10) or as foundation plantings where there is shade. Depending on the desiredeffect, allow 4 to 6 feet for the spread of most azaleas or plant more closely for initialimpact and transplant later to avoid crowding.

Reintroducing Rare Hybrids The popularity of the new Glenn Dale azalea cultivars quickly spread within the nursery tradeand in a relatively short period of time (1950s and 1960s) after Morrison's retirement. Manynurseries specialized in having all of the Glenn Dales available for dedicated consumers whohad become interested in having complete collections of their own. Although they were widelygrown, little data were gathered about their performance, ease of propagation and sales appeal. 041b061a72


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